Review of the Current Status of the Nationally-Produced Navigation Echosounders. Y. M. Repin, A. G. Maigov Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 711.

The short review of the current status of navigation echosounders is presented. The actuality and directions for the further improvement of these nationally-produced aids are shown.

Key words: navigation echosounders, range of operational depths, comparative characteristics, operational characteristics.

Interdependence of Light and Energy Parameters for the Light Sources of the Aids to Navigation Bassed on the LED Sources. E. P. Gladskikh, V. N. Kostin, V. A. Maksimov, Y. M. Repin Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 1218.

The issues showing the interdependence of light and energy parameters of LED sources are considered. The possibility to use these relationships in order to carry out the calculations for the new light-technology systems of visual aids to navigation is shown.

Key words: light-emitting diodes (LEDs), visibility range of lights, intensity of light, light flux, light efficacy, nominal output (nominal power), light and energy relationships.

On Obtaining the Position and Speed of an Object by Satellites in Case of Synchronization Disruption for Measured Pseudo-ranges. V. V. Gavrilov, P. I. Maleyev Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 1928.

The pseudo-ranges obtained by satellites that are the difference of the moments for the signals received by the satellite clock scales and scales of receiving equipment, multiplied by the velocity of light, are distorted due to a number of factors: the discrepancy of the receiver and satellite, influence of ionosphere and troposphere, carrier phase noises etc. Each developer of the receiving equipment excludes the interference by his own methods (unknown to the users). The aim of the article is to evaluate the influence of this interference and the possible accuracy of finding the position and speed of an object, using the real measured asynchronous pseudo-ranges.

Key words: satellite, pseudo-ranges, position of an object, disturbances, synchronization, navigation data.

Multilevel Model of Ships Collision Risk Assessment. V. M. Grinyak, L. V. Gerasimenko, A. S. Devyatisilny Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 2938.

The problem of marine vessel traffic control is discussed. The model of information system for marine safety estimation (ships collision avoidance) is considered. The system defines several alarm levels: green, yellow and red. The alarm criterion is based on maneuver detector. If the ship is maneuvering, her alarm level decreases (yellow). Mathematical model of position and speed estimation for alarm generation is proposed. Some results of experiments, such as numerical experiments for typical ship paths and experiments for vessel traffic in Vladivostok port water area are shown. There are about 20 % yellow alarms and 80 % red alarms. These alarms are generated throughout the water area.

Key words: vessel traffic control, collision avoidance, path, ship maneuver.

Refined Relationships Between Geographic and Quasigeographic co-ordinates Taking the Earth's Spheroidicity into Account. A. V. Kavraisky Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 3950.

The refined mathematical description of constructing the system of quasigeographic co-ordinates taking the Earth's spheroidicity into account that allows to remove the variant readings on this issue in scientific-technical literature, is presented. The appraisal of methodical errors for calculations using the presented formulas is given; the rightfulness of their employment for the new national geodetic systems -2011 and -90.11 is shown.

Key words: geographic co-ordinates, quasigeographic co-ordinates, representation of ellipsoid on a sphere, geodetic co-ordinates systems.

On Change to -90.11 and -2011 Co-ordinate Systems When Charting the Marine Water Areas in the Interests of Navigation-Hydrographic Support for the Navy E. S. Zubchenko, V. M. Smolin, A. M. Sharkov Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 5156.

The problems that arise when changing to employment of new (-2011 and -90.11) geodetic co-ordinate systems are considered. An example is given for the possible solution of the arising problems, namely, obtaining the correction value for the measured depth by changing the antenna height of the ship equipment receiving the satellite information.

Key words: geodetic co-ordinate systems, earth (terrestrial), geocentric co-ordinate systems, earth (terrestrial) ellipsoid, transformation of geocentric co-ordinates, elements of transformation, sketch (schematic) map for transformation, geodetic height for (hydrographic) datum, correction for height of tide.

Interval Representation of Scalar Hydrometeorological Characteristics. Y. N. Zhukov Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 5763.

The properties of values of the atmospheric air temperature do not agree with the properties of real numbers. The way of representing the air temperature values by ultrametric numbers is described.

Key words: numeric systems, representative theory of measurements, ultrametrics, air temperature.

Physical Laws and Climate Aids. Y. N. Zhukov Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 6369.

The traditional methods of creating the climate aids are based on two nonevident postulates: additivity and independence of thermodynamic values. It is shown that these postulates contradict the thermodynamic laws: Richmann law and equation of state.

Key words: climate aids, thermodynamics, Richmann law, equation of state.

The Present-Day State of the Operational Oceanology of the US Navy and Other Countries. S. I. Mastryukov, N. V. Chervyakova Navigation and Hydrography. 2015. No. 40. . 7078.

The information about the state of the operational oceanology abroad is summarized. Attention is drawn to the fact that the aim to increase the stealth of military submarine objects was one of the incentives for development of the operational oceanology. It has been revealed that the increased requirements to the level of information support for the naval activities due to the attempt to use, to the utmost degree, the masking qualities of the marine environment inevitably result in the necessity to improve all elements of the hydrometeorological support system, including the subsystem of the ocean state operative forecast.

Key words: hydrometeorological support, operational oceanology, model of the ocean.