On Complex Approach to Problems of Navigation Safety Provision for Ships and Vessels.
P. G. Brodsky, G. D. Litvinov, A. A. Lobanov, E. I. Rudenko. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 7–15.

The necessity to use the complex approach to development of navigation-hydrographic support for monitoring and control of ship traffic is substantiated. It is based on the analysis of state and requirements to provision of maritime navigation safety.

Key words: navigation-hydrographic support, maritime doctrine, complex approach, monitoring and control of ship traffic, development of aids to navigation.

Dependence of Luminaries Parallax on Accepted Model of the Earth Ellipsoid. V. N. Kostin, A. V. Lavrentyev.– Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 16–23.

The parallaxes of luminaries are considered not only by the altitude but also by the azimuth. The dependence of parallaxes on the used reference-ellipsoid of the Earth is considered as well. It is shown that the models of reference-ellipsoids do not influence the value of luminaries parallax with accuracy sufficient for maritime astronavigation.

Key words: luminary, the Earth ellipsoid, coordinate systems.

On the Maritime Frontier between Russia and the United States of America in the Arctic Ocean.
A. V. Kavraisky, E. V. Kolobov, A. V. Kostenich. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 24–28.

It is shown that the maritime frontier between the Russian Federation and the USA in the Arctic Ocean stated in the Agreement between the USSR and the USA (01.06.1990) not ratified by Russia, coincides geographically with the corresponding frontier in the Russian-American Convention (March 18/30 1867), and this frontier can be considered to be accepted.

Key words: maritime frontiers, meridian, geographic (al) co-ordinates, geodetic co-ordinate systems.

Method of Ship Circulation Control when Navigating along the Route Based on Non-aligned Lines.
V. G. Kosolapov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 29–34.

The method of ship circulation control based on non-aligned lines is considered. Its advantages, as compared to the used circulation control methods, are shown. The possibilities of its employment in the algorithms for the automation of the maneuvering problems are demonstrated.

Key words: «non-aligned lines», navigation safety, circulation control, algorithm of calculation of the time to begin the circulation.

The Error in Fixing the Position of Bottom Objects in Search by Means of Towed Equipment.
N. A. Nesterov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 34–41.

The errors of fixing the bottom objects position in search operation using the towed sonar equipment are analyzed. Comparative calculations of the values of these errors when using the towed and ship equipment are presented. Some recommendations are given.

Key words: towed underwater vehicle, mean square error, navigation sonar system with ultra-short base, ship stationary equipment.

Analysis of Maritime Aids Used For Ship Position Fixing By Solar Observation. V. E. Leonov, I. V. Sokol, A. S. Lazar¢. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 42–46.

The items of ship position fixing accuracy by astronomical methods using astronomical aids such as “The Nautical Almanac” in terms of position fixing by Solar observation at different times are considered. The items values of Sumner position line were determined under the conditions of full-scale investigation. As a result of performed analytical calculations and with the use of different aids for ship position fixing it was established that it is impossible to fix ship`s position with a probability of 95 % in the offing using only “The Nautical Almanac” within the requirements of IMO resolutions А.529(13). The calculation of dead reckoning in “Sight Reduction Table” and “Auxiliary Table” introduces the error. In order to avoid the error while ship position fixing, the calculations by spherical trigonometry formula are suggested to be used.

Key words: maritime astronomical aids, The Nautical Almanac, position fix-ing, ship position fixing accuracy, the items of Sumner position line.

Results of Marine Gravimetric Survey in Polar Latitudes, Using «Чекан-АМ» and «Шельф-Э» Gravimeters. V. V. Glazko, A. A. Krasnov, A. V. Sokolov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 47–51.

The main results of the marine gravimetric survey in the Arctic Ocean as part of the 2014 expedition «Шельф-2014» are presented. The specific features of survey under the heavy ice conditions are shown. As a result of the work, 10200 lin km were surveyed, the catalog of gravimetric points containing 71149 independent measurements was formed.

Key words: gravitation(al) field of the Earth, anomaly of gravitation(al) field of the Earth, gravimetric survey, gravimetric survey from the water surface, gravimetric complex, ice conditions, the Arctic Ocean.

On Some Causes of Errors When Calculating the Average Values of Sound Velocity and Sea Water
V. G. Lyamsina, S. I. Mastryukov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 51–58.

The results of evaluation of the role played by the nonlinearity of hydrophysical parameters correlations are presented, as applied to the water area of the Norwegian, Greenland and Barents Seas. The role played by the other causes of errors in calculation of average values of water density and sound velocity is evaluated. The ranges of combined changeability of temperature and salinity are revealed. It is shown that the hypothesis about the presence of combinations of water temperature and salinity impossible by physical considerations can refer only to deep-sea water masses, and the role of nonlinearity of equation for sea water state when calculating its average values is greatly exaggerated by some specialists.

Key words: hydrographic conditions, density of sea water, sound velocity in sea water, nonlinearity, errors in calculation.

New Possibilities of Radiolocation Methods of Meteorological Support for the Navy Air Force.
A. E. Drozdov, N. N. Zhiltsov, G. G. Shchukin, V. Y. Zhukov, M. Y. Ilyin. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 59–67.

New possibilities to use the Doppler meteorological radars for meteorological air force support with the aim to inform them about the dangerous weather phenomena and to determine the meteorological wind shift and its distribution in the boundary layer of the atmosphere, are considered. Recommendations on the composition of the radar aids of meteorological support for the land-based and ship-based aircraft, are given.

Key words: meteorological support for air force, meteorological radiolocation, profilometer, wind profile measurement.

Concerning the Design of Electronic Information-Reference Systems on the Hydrometeorological Regime of the Maritime Water Areas. N. V. Chervyakova, A. F. Glushkova. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 68–72.

The results of the work carried out by the Research Oceanographic Center, «GNINGI» OJSC, are presented. The aim of the work is to design the electronic information-reference systems on hydrometeorological regime of the maritime water areas. It is shown that the systems of this kind coming to replace the traditional paper aids meet the present-day requirements of support for the maritime activities by climatic information and are “the bridge” for creating the grid bases of climatic data necessary for support of the automated control systems.

Key words: information-reference system, atlas, climatic aid, hydrometeorological maritime safety.

The Technique of Reconstruction of the Geopotential Field over the Territory not Covered by Meteorological Observations Based on the Geostationary Meteorological Satellites Data. I. A. Gotyur, P. A. Prokhorenko, M. Y. Rud¢. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. – Р. 73–77.

The technique based on spline approximations is suggested. It allows to use the wind field data diagnostics by clouds-tracers during reconstruction of geopotential fields over the territories not covered by meteorological observations. The images obtained by geostationary meteorological satellites are used as the source of information for wind field diagnostics by clouds-tracers. The zonal and meridional components of wind speed vectors obtained by wind field diagnostics are used as constraints when constructing the approximation spline.

Key words: reconstruction of geopotential fields, territories not covered by meteorological observations, meteorological satellites data, correlative extreme method, spline approximation.

Integrity of Geoversum and its connection with hydrometeorological support for maritime activities.
Y. N. Zhukov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2015. – No. 41. –
Р. 78–82.

The following thesis is proposed: the problems of weather forecasting are connected with the absence of laws describing the rotation of matter and energy in geoversum. These laws cannot be described by the physical values used in measurement of physical fields of the Earth. To reveal the laws of rotation it is necessary to find the geovalues representing the complexes of the physical values.

Key words: rotations in nature, physical values, geovalues.