**NAVIGATION AND
HYDROGRAPHY №46/2016**

**The
Navigation Contour as one of the Alternative Directions of for Complexing the
Aids to Navigation in the RF Navy Ships. **A. A. Yakushev, M. Y. Smirnov,
M. A. Chichin. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 7–13.

One of the possible ways of complexing the maritime aids to navigation for surface ships/vessels of the RF Navy by means of creating the navigation contour is considered. It is shown that such a contour is a simplified alternative of the navigation complex suitable for installation on the surface ships that are being built or modernized.

Key words: complexing, the single set of navigation and dynamic parameters data, “navigation contour”, complex calculator, modular-contour principle, functional module, strap-down inertial navigation systems.

**The Program
Method Used to Increase the Accuracy of Finding the Spatial Orientation Angles
of a Vessel by Satellite Navigation Systems. **T. Y. Dubinko, A. S.
Seliverstov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 14–19.

The method used to increase the accuracy of determining the spatial orientation angles of a vessel by the signals of satellite navigation systems (SNS) by compensation of the influence of the navigation satellite signals reflected from the objects of the vessel¢s infrastructure, is described. The method is intended for the satellite compasses with multiantenna systems installed aboard and determining the course, list and trim in real time by processing the SNS signals by the phase of the carrier frequency.

Key words: satellite navigation systems (SNS), satellite compasses, receiving antennas, multibeam characteristic, error, interference, navigational data.

**Employment
of Theory of Geometric Probabilities to Evaluate the Index of the Water Area
Constraints for the Northern Sea Route. **V. V. Klyuev. –
Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 20–28.

The paper is devoted to the problem of development of quantitative indexes and methods of formalized evaluation of safety (FSE) for the NSR water area whose principles are set forth in the documents of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Polar Codex. The term “constraints” that is usually applied to the conditions of navigation of ships in the narrows and shallow water areas, is suggested to be used as a generalized characteristic for the NSR area and its separate parts. It is proposed to use the shallow water areas and ice fields that are combined into a single multitude of dangers to navigation as the factors defining “the water area constraints”. It is proposed to use the methods of geometric probabilities theory to determine the degree of water area constraints. It is asserted that the employment of the theory of geometric probabilities enables to reduce the problem of quantitative evaluation of the water area “constraints” to the problem of direct lines crossing the curves on the plane. As a quantitative criterion of the water area constraints, it is proposed to use the probability of shipping routes crossing the dangers to navigation. The main formulas and relationships allowing to calculate the required probability analytically for two variants of shipping routes directions including the isotropic set of routes and anisotropic set, are presented.

Key words: water area constraints, quantitative evaluation, geometric probability, danger to navigation.

**Prospects
of Using the Multibeam Echosounders in Submarine Carriers. **A. M.
Sharkov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 29–35.

The problems of using the multibeam echosounders in submarine carriers and the possible ways of solving them are considered.

Key words: survey of the bottom relief, multibeam echosounder, submarine carrier, sound velocity in the water, accuracy of determining the coordinates.

**On
Development of Technology for Search and Identification of Submarine
Potentially Dangerous Objects in the RF Arctic Seas. **P. G.
Brodsky, E. I. Rudenko, A. A. Lobanov, Y. N. Balesny. – Navigation and Hydrography.
– 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 36–44.

The main provisions for the complex technology of search and identification of submarine potentially dangerous objects are considered. The results of the analysis carried out for the state of the home hydrographic aids are presented.

Key words: submarine potentially dangerous objects, sunken objects, technology of search and identification, hydrographic aids.

**Evaluation
of the Error in Determining the Geographic Position of the Continental Rise by
Bathymetric Data. **A. V. Kavraisky, A. V. Kostenich. –
Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 45–55.

The numerical evaluation of the error in determining the position of the continental rise of Russia in the Arctic Ocean based on the analysis of bathymetric data and methods of their processing, is presented. It is shown that according to the data of the survey carried out in 2010 this error is in the order of magnitude lower than when the results of the 60s – 80s surveys of the previous century were used.

Key words: the continental rise, bathymetric profile, retrospective database, interpolation.

**State and
Prospects of Development of Technical Aids to Hydrometeorological Support for
the Naval Surface Ships with Group Basing of Aircraft. **A. E.
Drozdov, V. P. Sviridov, V. Y. Zhukov, G. G. Shchukin, M. Y. Ilyin. –
Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 56–64.

The results of analysis of the ship information-measurement system of hydrometeorological support for aircraft flights safety are presented. The problems due to the increasing requirements to hydrometeorological information in ships with group basing of aircraft and possible technical ways of their improvement are considered.

Key words: the Navy, hydrometeorological support, hydrometeorological information, aircraft of a ship, ship automated information-measurement system.

**Method of
Creating the Surface Marine Gridded Climatology of Increased Resolution. **N. V.
Chervyakova. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 64–70.

A new method of processing the climatic data intended to provide the hydrometeorologic support for the Navy is considered. The method makes it possible to evaluate the time- and space- coordinated climatic data in the points of the regular one degree grid, which corresponds to the present-day level of the spatial resolution of climatic information.

Key words: surface marine gridded climatology, climatic processing of the observation data, hydrometeorologic support for the Navy.

**Approach to
Automatization of Hydrometeorological Support for the Navy. **Y. N.
Zhukov, A. I. Ismailov, O.
A. Gasnikov.
– Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 70–77.

The approach to automatization of hydrometeorological support for the Navy for inclusion into the Navy automatic control systems is described.

Key words: automatization, intermittence, hydrometeorological support for the Navy.

**Specific
Features of Numerical Differentiation of Hydrometeorological Elements Fields. **Y. N.
Zhukov, A. I. Ismailov, O. A. Gasnikov. –
Navigation and Hydrography. – 2016. – No. 46. – Р. 78–83.

The incorrectness of the numerical calculation of the differential for the discrete measurements of the hydrometeorological fields is substantiated. It is proposed to use the wavelet-function for regularization of the problem of numerical finding of the differential by the discrete measurements.

Key words: differential, derivative, discrete measurements, numerical error.