Journal "Navigation and Hydrography"

Publishing Organisation

The State Research Navigation-Hydrographic Institute (GNINGI JSC).
Beginning from 1995 GNINGI JSC publishes the journal “Navigation and Hydrography” four times a year. The journal is distributed by subscription and is also for sale. In addition, it is sent to scientific-technical centers, research organizations, major libraries of Russia.

We invite you to submit the papers for publication in our journal. 


The articles published in the journal cover the results of various explorations in the fields of navigation, hydrography, oceanography, hydrometeorology, marine cartography, marine geophysics, and ecology. The conceptual scientific ideas are set forth, the results of the latest theoretical investigations are published. The journal makes its readers familiar with the advanced technical achievements, materials of symposia, conferences, and chronicle of the most important events of the scientific life of the Institute.

V. M. Smolin, CandSc, Director General, GNINGI JSC
Editorial Board
A. A. YakushevCandSc, Director General, GNINGI JSC 
P. I. Maleyev, DSc, science editor, leading researcher, GNINGI JSC;
I. Y. Bugrova, editor, CandSc, associated professor, Department of Sedimentary Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University;
V. Y. Bakhmutov, the issue manager, CandSc, chief of Research Oceanographic Center, GNINGI JSC;
E. S. Zubchenko, DSc, professor, professor of the N. G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy;
A. I. Ismailov, DSc, professor, chief of division, GNINGI JSC;
V. F. Katenin, DSc, professor, scientific secretary, GNINGI JSC;
S. I. Mastryukov, DSc, leading researcher, GNINGI JSC;
N. N. Neronov, DSc, professor, chief researcher, GNINGI JSC;
V. G. Peshekhonov, DSc, Acad. RAS, General Director of Concern CSRI Elektropribor, JSC;
K. G. Stavrov, DSc, professor, chief researcher of Research Oceanographic Centre, GNINGI JSC;
A. M. Sharkov, CandSc, chief of Research Department of Hydrography, Geophysics and Hydrometeorology, GNINGI JSC;
G. G. Shchukin, DSc, professor, leading researcher, GNINGI JSC;
Rules of Submission, Review and Publication of Scientific Articles
The articles submitted to the editorial board are reviewed and edited. The reviews is appointed by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal or his deputy. The reviewers are carried out by the leading scientists of GNINGI JSC who published the materials on the topics of the reviewed article during three last years. When necessary, the scientists of the other educational institutions can be invited for reviewing. The reviewer presents his opinion in the written form: he evaluates the actuality of the theme, novelty and reliability of the obtained results, their theoretic and practical importance, points out the drawbacks and gives recommendations for their elimination. At the end, the reviewer draws a conclusion on the advisability of publishing the article in the journal.
The submitted articles and the reviews are considered and discussed at the meetings of the editorial board. The meetings of the editorial board is considered to be competent if no less than 70% of its members are present. The replacement of the editorial board member by his representative is allowed in result of the personal application of the member replaced and agreement of the Editor-in-Chief.
Decision on approval or refusal is taken by the majority of voices of the members. With equal numbers of voices, the voice of the Editor-in-Chief is decisive. When refusing the publication, the editorial board is to send the motivated refusal with the copy of the review to the author. Besides, the reviews can be sent to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation when receiving the corresponding inquiry. The reviews for the submitted articles must be kept at the editorial board of the journal during 5 years.
Information for the Authors
The articles should be submitted in MS Word format for Windows, accompanied by the typed copy of the article (type size 14, 1.5-spaced lines). All the materials should be signed by the author(s).
The materials sent by e-mail should be submitted in the form of files attached to the letter.
The size of the article should not exceed 0.5 author’s sheet (20000 characters), including the figures, tables, and bibliographic references. The title of the article should reflect, in the most concise form, its contents.
The article should have an abstract containing not more than 150 words. The author(s) should provide the following information: full name, full name of the institution where the author(s) work, the postal and electronic addresses, telephone numbers. The abstract and the information about the author(s) are provided in separate files.
For formulas and symbols used in them the formula editor MS Word for Windows should be employed. The values and measurement units used in the article should correspond to the International System of Units, SI.
Figures are provided in a separate file in .bmp, .jpg or .gif formats with resolution up to 300 DPI. All figures should have the consecutive numbers and captions. The graphics files should not contain more than one figure.
Tables should have the consecutive numbers and captions. The length of a line in the tables with Arial type, size 9, should not exceed 140 mm. The tables with the line length at the above-mentioned type greater than 145 mm should be vertically-oriented.
The bibliographic references are provided in the language of the original (with the exception of the languages with hieroglyphic spelling) in the order the references are used in the text. References in the text are given in square brackets and contain their number in the list of the references. The bibliographic references should include the surname and initials of the authors, full title of the book or article, title of the collection, city, publishers, year, volume, number, page(s).
Address of the Editorial Board
41 Kozhevennaya liniya, St. Petersburg, I99106, Russia
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.


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Navigation and Hydrography # 53/2018

1. A Method for Increasing the Resolution of Shipborne Radar Based on a Signal With a Linear Frequency Modulation and a Split Spectrum. V. S. Bakholdin. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 7–13.

A method of generating signals with linear frequency modulation for shipborne radar based on the splitting of the signal spectrum is proposed. Mathematical modeling of the proposed signal is carried out. The spectral and correlation characteristics of the new signals are compared with the characteristics of the meander noise-like signals. The estimation of the potential resolution of signals with linear frequency modulation and split spectrum is given.

Key words:  Pulsed radar signal, linear frequency modulation, resolution, split spectrum.

2. Ships Route Planning with Respect of Sea Waves Danger. V. M. Grinyak, A. S. Devyatisilny, D. A. Akmaikin. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 14–23.

The problem of marine traffic safety is discussed in this paper. The problem of ships path planning taking into account heavy weather conditions (sea waves) along the route is considered. As a metric characterizing the safety of traffic, a well-known storm diagram of ships at a passing wave is used. According to it, the level of danger is determined from the data on height and wavelength. As a source of meteorological data, satellite monitoring information is used. It is shown that in spite of the roughness of the initial data, they are able to give a practical solution for choosing the trajectory of the vessel's motion. The work is accompanied by the results of full-scale experiments. The results of the assessment of the vessels safety and path planning in the waters of the North Pacific are presented.

Key words:  marine safety, sea waves, path planning, storm diagram, shortest path.

3. The History of the Development of Navigational and Hydrographic Support (NHS) in the Water Area of the Northern Sea Route. Part I. Creation and Development of the NHS System in the Arctic Seas of Russia in the Period of the 1930s - 1980s. S.V. Reshetnyak. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 24–33.

The article is dedicated to the 85th anniversary of the creation in 1933 of the Hydrographic Department of the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. Part I of the article considers the water area of the Northern Sea Route as an object of the NHS; the main features affecting the organization of the NHS in the Arctic seas of Russia, and the three stages of the development of the NHS system in the Arctic seas of Russia from 1932 to 1990.

Key words:  Northern Sea Route, navigational and hydrographic support, navigation safety, Arctic.

4. A Method of Photogrammetric Determination of the Coordinates of Terrain Points in an Inaccessible Area. Yu. P. Nechypas, Yu. V. Levadny, V. A. Telesh. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 34–39.

The article proposes a method for determining the coordinates of terrain points in a photogrammetric manner, which is suitable for determining the angle elements of orientation of photo images with any values of tilt 

Key words:  photogrammetric method, field preparation of images, photogrammetric processing, exterior orientation elements.

5. The Nature of Sea Level Fluctuations with Periods more than Tidal. Yu. N. Zhukov, E. V. Fedorovа. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 40–49.

The analysis of the statistical properties of low-frequency (with periods of less tidal) sea level fluctuations according to field measurements in the Arctic basin. The range of low-frequency fluctuations is comparable with the amplitude of the tide. It is shown that low-frequency fluctuations are non-stationary, not limited in scope processes. The distribution of the heights of such oscillations is asymmetrical and has heavy “tails”.

Keywords:   sea level, low-frequency fluctuations, heavy "tails"

6. Assessment of the Currents Stability in the North-Western Part of the Pacific Ocean. S. I. Mastryukov, N. V. Chervyakova – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 50–57.

The article presents an approach to the calculation of climatic indicators of currents, taking into account their sustainability. The initial data used are numerical modeling of currents in the north-western part of  the Pacific Ocean, produced by the European System of Operational Oceanology Copernicus. Seasonal and spatial variability of the indicator of stability of currents is revealed. Formulated proposals for the calculation and construction of maps of climatic indicators of currents, taking into account their sustainability.

Keywords:   current stability, operational oceanology, grid arrays, information support for marine activities.

7. The New Method for Assessing the Degree of Deep Pollution of Sea Waters. Sima A. G. Askerova – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 58–64.

The article is devoted to the assessment of the deep pollution of sea waters. The possibility of developing a criterion for the average estimate of the degree of total pollution of marine waters is investigated. With reference to two polluting components of sea waters, characterized by the paraphase dependence of their concentration on a common parameter — depth, a depth-integrated indicator of deep pollution of sea waters is proposed. It was determined that the latter does not possess extreme properties and can be used as an objective indicator of the degree of pollution of sea waters.

Key words:  pollution, sea water, weighted assessment, heavy metals, oil hydrocarbons.

8. On the Issue of Creating a System of Operational Oceanology for the Navy Hydrometeorological Support. A. M. Sharkov, N. N. Zhiltsov – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 65–71.

The article considers some aspects of creation of the system of operational oceanology.

Keywords:   operational oceanology, hydroacoustics, observational subsystem, glider, robotics, data collection.

9. Method of the Automated Zoning of Vertical Sound Speed Distribution in the Ocean. Yu. N. Zhukov, V. Yu. Bakhmutov – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 53. – P. 72–82.

The article describes the method of automated zoning of the vertical  sound speed distribution (VSSD) in the ocean based on hierarchical clustering. A distinctive feature of the method is the integral consideration of the similarity of the forms of the VSSD curves and the proximity of the VSSD measurement points. Algorithm for visualization of representative VSSD and their respective areas allows it to be included in the WMS technology software environment for coordination with the scale of the map.

Keywords:   vertical distribution of sound speed, zoning, hierarchical clustering.

Navigation and Hydrography # 51/2018

1. Safety of Navigation. Risk Assessment and Risk Management. N. I. Ledenyev, V. A. Maksimov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 7–15.

The article considers the influence of the human factor on the dynamics of maritime safety, analyzes methods and models for risk assessment, and provides practical recommendations on risk management.

Keywords:   safety of navigation, risk management, assessment methods, human factor.

2. The «Skala» Hardware-Software Apparatus for Estimation of the Error of Definition of the Absolute Velocity the Hydroacoustic Log. M. L. Bogdanovich, M. A. Chistov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 16–21.

In article the «SKALA» hardware-software complex for an estimation of errors of definition of an absolute velocity of hydroacoustic absolute logs is considered.

Keywords:   a hydroacoustic absolute log, an absolute velocity, «GLONASS», satellite geodesic equipment, calibration.

3. To the Issue of Increasing the Accuracy and Stealth of the Navigational Complex of Submarines. P. I. Maleyev, A. B. Popov – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 8–12.

The article considers the prospects of using absolute gravimeters in the navigational complex of submarines. The potential accuracy of absolute gravimeters is many orders of magnitude higher than that of relative gravimeters, and does not depend on the speed and course of the object. When working with them, you do not need to periodically return to a control point. As a result, it becomes possible to increase the autonomy of the navigation complex by increasing the time between using external correction means that can unmask the submarine.

Keywords:   navigation complexes, inertial systems, absolute gravimeters, submarines, stealth.

4. Effect of Vessel Roll of the Doppler Log in Sonar Contact with Bottom. M. L. Bogdanovich, N. L. Gorbunov, M. A. Chistov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 22–31.

The method of determination of angle shift of beam pattern of combined hydroacoustic antenna of absolute hydroacoustic log during signal propagation by the track: transmiting antenna – bottom – receiving antenna, is developed and applied. Results of calculation of angle position of beam pattern parametres under a rolling influence is presented.

Keywords:   hydroacoustic Doppler log, vessel roll, beam pattern of hydroacoustic antenna, angle position parametres.

5. To the Question of Creating an Absolute Gravimeter for Marine Mobile Objects. P. I. Maleyev, A. B. Popov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 31–39.

The article gives a comparative evaluation of the accuracy characteristics of relative and absolute gravimeters and their features. It is noted that relative gravimeters have received wide development and use on marine mobile objects. A number of technical solutions have been considered, the implementation of which will make it possible to create an absolute gravimeter for marine mobile objects.

Keywords:   absolute gravimeters, relative gravimeters, acceleration of gravity, marine objects, interferometers, navigation.

6. Method for Calculating Initial Astronomical Arguments in Harmonic Analysis of Tides. Y. N. Zhukov, E. V. Fedorova. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 40–49.

Formulas are given that allow one to calculate astronomical arguments for any year and thereby ensure the applicability of PGS-34 when calculating harmonic constants for modern sea level observations.

Keywords:   tides, astronomical elements, astronomical arguments.

7. Method for Determining the Time of Aerial Photography of the Shoreline with Allowance for Tidal Sea Level Fluctuations. Y. N. Zhukov, E. V. Fedorova. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 50–55.

It is proposed to plan the time of aerial photography of the coastline taking into account the moments of the onset of maximally complete and minimally small tidal waters during the Merton cycle period.

Keywords:   tides, aerial photography, coastline, cartography.

8. On the Issue of Creating a System of Static Databases of Background Environmental Conditions for Information Support of Marine Radio-Electronic Means. O. A. Gasnikov, V. I. Guseva, A. F. Zenkov, A. V. Kostenich, S. I. Mastryukov, M. N. Soboleva, K. G. Stavrov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 56–62.

Based on the analysis of foreign and domestic experience of informational support of naval activity with information on the state of the natural environment, it is shown that at the present stage of the development of maritime management systems, the need for adequate recording of a set of indicators of the state of the natural environment and their representation in digital form has sharply increased. The conclusion is made about the importance and urgency of solving problems on assessing the quality of foreign grid arrays of indicators of the state of the natural environment and developing a specialized databases to support the operation of marine radio-electronic means.

Keywords:   natural environment, grid arrays, geospatial information, marine activities, radio electronic means, digital models.

9. Prospects for Creating an Interactive Automated System for Providing Long-term Hydrometeorological Information to the Navy's Command and Control Agencies. Y. N. Zhukov, N. N. Zhiltsov. – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 63–70.

The modern development of digital technologies opens the possibility of replacing existing climate publications with an interactive automated system for providing long-term hydrometeorological information to the military command and control agencies of the Navy, which provides user feedback to the system. It is shown that the creation of such a system will allow to organize the issuance of climate warnings, extend the range of prognostic products to 45 days.

Keywords:   climate benefits, hydrometeorological support, decision making, weather forecasts, climate variability, climate warnings, long-term meteorological forecasts.

10. The Main Provisions of the Concept of Creating a Library of Grid Bases for Indicators of the State of the Marine Environment for Information Support of Hydroacoustic Calculations. O. A. Gasnikov, V. I. Guseva, A. V. Kostenich, S. I. Mastryukov, M. N. Soboleva, K. G. Stavrov (GNINGI, JSC) – Navigation and Hydrography. – 2018. – No. 51. – Р. 71–78.

The requirements to grid bases of indicators of the state of the natural environment designed to support hydroacoustic calculations are generalized. Based on the analysis of available information resources, domestic and foreign experience, the conceptual foundations for creating grid arrays are outlined and proposals for their development are worked out.

Keywords:   natural environment, grid array, geospatial information, marine activities, hydroacoustic means, digital model.

Navigation and Hydrography # 52/2018

1. The Development of the Federal Law "On Navigation and Hydrographic Support of Maritime Activities of the Russian Federation" is the Imperative of the Times. А. I. Ismailov, A. A. Lobanov, A. M. Popov, O. D. Osipov, A. V. Peregudov, A. N. Popov, V. V. Puchnin, S. A. Surmilov. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – P. 7–13.

The article reveals the place and role of navigation and hydrographic support (NHS) in the maritime activity of the Russian Federation in the World Ocean. Factors determining the main directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of maritime activity have been revealed. The aim of the NHS of the maritime activities of the Russian Federation and the ways of its solution are shown. The necessity of the development of the federal law of the Russian Federation "On navigation and hydrographic support of maritime activities of the Russian Federation" is proved.

Keywords:   RF legislation, navigation and hydrographic support, the World Ocean, marine activities.

2. Calculation of the Depth of Diving of the Underwater Vehicle. N. A. Nesterov, R. A. Andreyuk. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – p. 14–21.

Determining the depth in the process of diving, swimming and working in the water column of the underwater vehicle (UV) is an important navigational task. Accurate knowledge of the depth, the third spatial coordinate, provides not only navigation safety UV, but also high-quality binding of the data. Therefore, the problem of choosing the optimal solution of this problem and developing the appropriate algorithm is very significant. In JSC "Marine Navigation Systems" was conducted study and developed the algorithms for implementation in computer software of the depth.

Keywords:   underwater vehicle, hydrostatic pressure, density, salinity, temperature, sound velocity, immersion depth.

3. Conceptual Proposals for the Organization of Terrestrial Network of Mobile Reference Sources of Stable Coordinate-time and Navigation Support. A. P. Aleshkin, A. A. Makarov, A. P. Shpakov,
K. K. Zubarev, D. V. Ivanov. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – p. 22–31.

The concept of development of a network of ground reference sources of coordinate-time and navigation support is formulated. It is noted that in conditions that require improving the accuracy and autonomy of the global satellite navigation systems, the deployment of a network structure for the distribution of navigation, time and special signals in the extended territory of Russia and friendly states will significantly increase the strategic quality characteristics and the ability of a wide class of consumers.

Keywords:   coordinate-time navigation support, satellite navigation systems.

4. On the Issue of Improving the Accuracy and Noise Immunity of the Gravitational Gradiometer for Mobile Marine Objects. P. I. Maleev, A. B. Popov. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – p. 32–40.

The prospects of application of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) as a sensor information retrieval in airborne gravity gradiometers are considered. STMs are widely used now. The use of STM will create gravitational gradiometers with increased accuracy and protection from overloads caused by ship rolling and vibration.

Keywords:   gravitational gradiometers, navigation systems, inertial navigation systems, marine objects, accelerometers, electrons, tunnel microscope, tunnel current.

5. Transformation of Geodetic Coordinates into Plane Rectangular Coordinates of the Gauss Projection and the Reverse Task. E. S. Zubchenko, A. V. Kavraysky. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – P. 41–51.

In article formulas of transformation of geodetic coordinates to flat rectangular coordinates of a projection of Gauss and the solution of the inverse task on a basis of calculation of coefficients of ascending power series for any reference ellipsoids are offered.

Keywords:   geodesic coordinates, cartographic projections, transformation of coordinates, earth ellipsoid.

6. Global Geospatial Information Storage Systems. Yu. N. Zhukov, V. Yu. Bakhmutov. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – P. 52–57.

The questions of practical realization of storage systems for large volumes of geospatial information and use for storage of non-relational databases are considered.

Keywords:   nonrelational databases, large data, geospatial information, hierarchical structure.

7. Modern Navigation-Hydrographic and Hydrometeorological Features of the Area of the Search Operation of the Russian Navy in the South Atlantic. P. G. Brodsky, A. M. Sharkov. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – P. 58–64.

The results of a study of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean in the region of the coast of Argentina carried out by GNINGI, JSC during the work of the search forces involved in the search for the missing submarine of Argentina.

Keywords:   search and rescue operations, navigation and hydrographic, hydrometeorological, hydrological conditions, technical means.

8. Discrete Coordinates for Global Geospatial Information Systems. Yu. N. Zhukov, V. Yu. Bakhmutov. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – P. 65–74.

The existing discrete global coordinate systems are briefly considered and a comparison of their main properties is made in terms of the application of such systems for cartographic, hydrographic and hydrometeorological support of the Navy.

Keywords:   coordinate systems, Digital Earth, projection, geospatial information.

9. The Main Results of the Analysis of Hydrometeorological Conditions and Environmental Monitoring in the Areas of Construction of Gas Pipelines in the Baltic Sea. A. M. Abramov, K. G. Stavrov,
N. V. Chervyakova. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – p. 75–81.

The ecological aspects of arrangement of perspective offshore oil and gas facilities on the Baltic Sea are considered. The necessity of carrying out works on inspection and cleaning of areas of gas pipeline from the hazards of technogenic origin (sunken objects, submerged chemical weapons, explosive objects) is shown.

Keywords:   marine environment, ecology, shelf, hydrometeorological conditions, hazards of technogenic origin.

10. Terrestrial-onboard method for measuring total suspended matter in the wellhead seaside zone.
Kh. G. Asadov, L. J. Abdullaeva. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – P. 81–87.

The article is devoted to the development of a new ground-airborne method and methodology for measuring the total suspended matter in the wellhead seaside zone. The problem of conducting turbidimetric measurements and determination of the amount of suspended solids depending on the turbidity of water in the mouth of the seaside zone is formulated. A method is proposed for determining the total number of suspended particles as a function of the measured turbidity value using the universal statistical characteristics of the first channel of the MODIS spectroradiometer is proposed.

Keywords:   suspended solids, turbidity, turbidimeter, spectroradiometer, reflectivity spectrum.

11. State and prospects of the development of hydrometeorological means for providing a system for illumination the situation in the Arctic. N. N. Zhiltsov, V. P. Sviridov, V. S. Anosov, A. A. Anokhin. – Navigation and hydrography. – 2018. – No. 52. – P. 88–94.

The article describes the state of the system for lighting the situation in the Arctic and the problems of hydrometeorological support. The necessity of increasing the network of hydrometeorological observations and prospective observation platforms in the Arctic region is shown.

Keywords:   lighting systems, Arctic regions, main information and analytical center, hydrometeorological support, Arctic observation network, ice class research vessels, autonomous ice buoys, robotic complexes, gliders.

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